The Chalcolithic (Ancient Greek: khalkos "copper" + Ancient Greek: lithos "stone")
The Copper Age period is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools depending on geographic region.
The period is a transitional one outside of the traditional three-age system, and occurs between the Neolithic and Bronze Age. It appears that copper was not widely exploited at first and that efforts in alloying it with tin and other metals began quite soon, making distinguishing the distinct Chalcolithic cultures and later periods difficult. The boundary between the Copper and Bronze Ages is indistinct, since alloys sputtered in and out of use due to the erratic supply of tin.
The emergence of metallurgy occurred first in the Fertile Crescent, where it gave rise to the Bronze Age in the 4th millennium BC. There was an independent and limited invention of copper and bronze smelting by the Incas in South America and Mesoamerican civilization in West Mexico (see Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica).
The literature of European archaeology generally avoids the use of 'chalcolithic' (they prefer the term 'Copper Age'), while Middle-Eastern archaeologists regularly use it. The Copper Age in the Middle East and the Caucasus begins in the late 5th millennium BC and lasts for about a millennium before it gives rise to the Early Bronze Age. Transition from the European Copper Age to Bronze Age Europe occurs about a millennium later, between the late 4th and the late 3rd millennia BC.
According to Parpola, ceramic similarities between the Indus Civilization, southern Turkmenistan, and northern Iran during 4300–3300 BC of the Chalcolithic period suggest considerable mobility and trade.
Ötzi the Iceman, who was found in the Ötztal Alps and whose remains were dated to about 3300 BC, was found with a copper axe, which indicates that copper mining existed in Europe at least 5,300 years ago (500 years earlier than previously believed).
In Serbia a copper axe was found at Prokuplje, which indicates that human use of metals started in Europe around 7,500 years ago, many years earlier than previously believed.
Knowledge of the use of copper was far wider spread than the metal itself. The European Battle Axe culture used stone axes modelled on copper axes, with imitation "mold marks" carved in the stone.
Examples of Chalcolithic cultures in Europe include Vila Nova de Săo Pedro and Los Millares on the Iberian Peninsula. Pottery of the Beaker people has been found at both sites, dating to several centuries after copper-working began there. The Beaker culture appears to have spread copper and bronze technologies in Europe, along with Indo-European languages.
Chalcolithic copper mine in Timna Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. South Asia
The South Asian inhabitants of Mehrgarh fashioned tools with local copper ore between 7700–3300 BC.
5th millennia BC copper artifacts start to appear in East Asia, such as Jiangzhai and Hongshan culture, but those metal artifacts were not widely used.
Less commonly, the term is also applied to American civilizations which already used copper and copper alloys thousands of years before European conquest. The Old Copper Complex, located in present day Michigan and Wisconsin in the United States used copper for tools, weapons and other implements. Artifacts from these sites have been dated from 4000 to 1000 BC, making them some of the oldest Chalcolithic sites in the entire world
The Pyramids of the Giza Plateu
Latitude: 30° 3' 0 N, Longitude: 31° 15' 0 E
The Great Pyramids, The Lost Pyramid
4000-1600 BC Copper Age
Egypt, Sumer, Ur, Assyria, Asia
Hamurabi, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure
The Pre-Dynastic Period
The Great Pyramids
Khopesh, Composite Bow
Libris Mortis, Ushabti, Ankh
4000-1600 BC Copper Age
The Pre-Dynastic Period
The Great Pyramids
The Copper Age >
The Library of Alexandria
Arms & Armor
The Copper Age
Riddle of the Sphinx
The Sling - One of the simplest and oldest weapons of antiquity. These easy to produce items were used throughout all periods of Ancient Egypt.
Mace - mace heads can be constructed from a variety of materials such as copper, bronze, and even stone.
Spear - Usually made with a wooden shaft and some sort of sharpened head. Another one of the most basic weapons of war. They could easily be employed by a simple soldier, but also found in the hands of the most famous of warriors.
Battle Axes -
Bow and Arrow - The egyptian composite bow took over 2 years to create. They were first made of several pieces of shapen flexible wood from two species with pieces of antler or bone attached at the ends. They were then glued together with amber. Once constructed they were left to dry in the desert sand for two years. Then they were ready. For this reason they were very highly prized weapons, and usually found in the hands of the elite.
Swords, Scimitars, and Daggers - The various forms of sword are most profound in the egyptian khopesh. This sword has a most distinguished curve feature prominently displayed over most of the sword. This curve allows its user to capture opponents weapons and also counter swiftly. It was worn by the highest guard of the egyptian army.
When was the Great Sphinx of Giza built? Good question, but no one has the exact answer! The Great Sphinx of Giza is carved of rock, so it cannot be dated by the radio carbon technique. The only other method of dating the Sphinx would be by using old Egyptian texts that refer to its existence and construction. The problem is that there are no such texts, therefore, no definite facts are known. The great monument was definitely in existence in the time of Khufu (Cheops). Pharaoh Thutmose IV had a granite stele known as the Dream stele placed between the paws (A stele was a stone slab, decorated with text which served as a monument. But the sphinx probably dates back to the generations before the Pharaoh Menes who established the 1st Egyptian dynasty in the Early Dynastic Period. These people were called in the priestly chronicles "the Servants of Horus" and were the early people who settled in Egypt and who were Aryans during the Predynastic Period 5550 BC - 3050 BC. However other scholars believe that the Great Sphinx of Giza was built during the period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt during the 3rd millennium BC. The Old Kingdom is often referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids" when the Great pyramids of Giza were built, in close proximity to the Great Sphinx. The time period of the Old Kingdom covers 2686 BC - 2181 BC. So there is no definitive answer to when the Great Sphinx was built and who built the sphinx - it is no wonder that people often refer to the Mystery or Riddle of of the Sphinx.
The Great Sphinx
2650-2150 BC Old Kingdom
2040-1640 BC Middle Kingdom
1550-1070 BC New Kingdom
Middle East 5th Millenium BC
Europe 4th Millenium BC
Otzi the Iceman
The Old Copper Complex
Dead Sea Scrolls